This is what Roman Catholics argue with the implication that such an excommunication would be ontologically meaningful and put someone "outside the Catholic Church".
Yet, we do not see bishops "pleading" but indeed "sharply rebuking" and "admonishing" Victor.
Ultimately this is why his letters of excommunication came to no effect.
Nevertheless it is possible to read in Eusebius' account the possibility that St.
Pope Siricius (384–399) claimed for papal decretals the same binding force as decisions of synods, Pope Innocent I (401–417) said that all major judicial cases should be reserved for the see of Rome, and Pope Boniface I (418–422) declared that the church of Rome stands to "the churches throughout the world as the head to its members" and that bishops everywhere, while holding the one same episcopal office, must "recognise those to whom, for the sake of ecclesiastical discipline, they should be subject".
ended with acceptance of a declaration insisted on by Pope Hormisdas (514–523) that "I hope I shall remain in communion with the apostolic see in which is found the whole, true, and perfect stability of the Christian religion".
Victor obviously claimed superior authority, probably from St.
But the question is this: even if Victor was not acting wisely, did he not have the power to "cut off whole Churches"?
Earlier, in 494, Pope Gelasius I (492–496) wrote to Byzantine Emperor Anastasius, distinguishing the power of civil rulers from that of the bishops (called "priests" in the document), with the latter supreme in religious matters; he ended his letter with: "And if it is fitting that the hearts of the faithful should submit to all priests in general who properly administer divine affairs, how much the more is obedience due to the bishop of that see which the Most High ordained to be above all others, and which is consequently dutifully honoured by the devotion of the whole Church." In 330, Emperor Constantine moved the imperial capital to Byzantium, a strategically located city on the Bosporus.
He renamed the capital Nova Roma ("New Rome"), but the city would become known as Constantinople.
Historian Axel Bayer says the legation was sent in response to two letters, one from the Emperor seeking assistance in arranging a common military campaign by the eastern and western empires against the Normans, and the other from Cerularius.
On the refusal of Cerularius to accept the demand, the leader of the legation, Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida, O. B., excommunicated him, and in return Cerularius excommunicated Humbert and the other legates.